Inclusion of Minorities

Inclusion of Minorities measures levels of discrimination against vulnerable groups such as indigenous peoples, migrants, refugees, or lower caste groups. This measure focuses upon whether there is systemic bias among managers, administrators, and members of the community in the allocation of jobs, benefits, and other social and economic resources regarding particular social groups.

While there is not a large theoretical literature on the topic of ‘discrimination’ per se, there is a large empirical literature on specific categories of discrimination, for example where this is ethnically or racially motivated. In terms of its welfare benefits, the relationship between identity groups in a society has important consequences for the allocative efficiency of an economy, as norms of arbitrary discrimination lead to sub-optimal resource allocation by squandering human potential.

ISD measures the level of inclusion of minorities using indicators which are based on direct measurement of social institutions and their outcomes, and perception-based indicators, based on assessments by public opinion surveys, private agencies and non-governmental organizations, and proxy measures to measure the access to jobs and educational attainment.

Data Used

IndicatorSourceCountries
Level of perceived discrimination among blacks and mulattos, among all those in country self-identifying into these groupsLatinobarometer17
Proportion of the public reporting that they are affected by discrimination due to skin colour or discrimination as immigrantsLatinobarometer18
Percentage citing “discrimination due to skin colour” and “discrimination against immigrants” affects meAfrobarometer18
Proportion of population reporting that their economic situation is the ‘same’ as other ethnic groups in countryAfrobarometer16
Proportion of population reporting that their political situation is the ‘same’ as other ethnic groups in countryAfrobarometer4
Proportion of population reporting that their ethnic group is ‘never’ treated unfairly in countryAfrobarometer16
Rating on level of uneven economic development along group linesFund for Peace176
Level of ethnic tensions, International Country Risk Guide ratingInternational Country Risk Guide140
Level of religious tensions, International Country Risk Guide ratingInternational Country Risk Guide140
Proportion of the public who do not very much or not at all trust members of other religious groupsWorld Values Surveys22
Proportion of the public who do not very much or not at all trust members of other nationalitiesWorld Values Surveys21
Proportion of the public citing “Being of the same social background” is very important or rather important for as successful marriageWorld Values Surveys22
Level of economic and political discrimination against minorities in countryMinorities at Risk118
Proportion of the public who would reject members of another ethnic or caste group as neighboursWorld Values Surveys84
Proportion of the public who would reject immigrants or foreign workers as neighboursWorld Values Surveys84
Proportion of the public who would reject members of another religious group as neighboursWorld Values Surveys50
Proportion of the public who would reject other language group as neighboursWorld Values Surveys28
Proportion of the public who would reject Jews as neighboursWorld Values Surveys50
Proportion of the public who would “Prevent Labour Immigration”World Values Surveys50
Proportion of the public who are (strongly) against immigration (people of another race, from poorer countries)European Social Survey20
Proportion of the public who think “immigration is bad for economy”European Social Survey20
Proportion of the public who think “immigration is bad for cultural lifeEuropean Social Survey20